nice read. Google translate works fine with this. I have the entire English version of the thread in PDF at the end of this post.
China’s first self-designed and manufactured watch "Dongfeng Watch"
ST5 movement development background
In January 1955, in Tianjin, on the coast of the Bohai Sea, four people started making China's first watch in a small workshop with limited tools. Starting from the design of a 5-diamond rough stopwatch from Dindaco, Switzerland, they completed a prototype watch on March 24. The first watch was called a five-star watch. This low-end watch has been produced in very small quantities, in fact each one is made by hand.
In 1957, preparations for the establishment of Tianjin Wuyi Watch Factory were started and completed the following year. A brand new 17-diamond watch was put into production under the brand name 51. These watches were born out of Swiss design (FHF 25/28 series). Since then, the ST-2A 51 watch movement has been enhanced in details, including shock resistance and more drills.
Tianjin Wuyi Watch Factory received the 304 task in 1961. The first generation of university graduates from the Department of Timekeeping: Jiang Dasheng, Yin Chenghui, Pei Yifei, Bao Jinsen, Zhang Lianzhang, etc. are responsible for the design and development of aviation watches. Using the Swiss venus175 (Omega movement) as the prototype, 32 trial-produced in 63 years, drawing adjustments in 64, and 100 trial-produced in 65 years and 10 menstruation qualified in 65 years. In December 1965, it was formally produced after the joint approval of 21 units including the First Light Department, Air Force Command, Navy and Air Department, and Marine Insurance Department. The movement serial number [ST3]. It was put into production in May 66 and delivered 1,400 in October 66. It took five years to complete the task of 3,000. It was not sold on the market. At that time, it was a secret code product and generally not known to outsiders. At that time, while Western imperialism was blocking me, the Soviet Union broke with me. After five years of hard work under extremely difficult circumstances, it finally produced a fully qualified, purely domestic aviation watch, which filled the gap of our air force and served the country. Save a lot of foreign exchange, win glory for the motherland and the people, and win the spirit.
In 1962, the factory moved to a new location and was renamed [Tianjin Watch Factory] on January 5 of the same year. At the same time, the general party branch was promoted to the party committee. Party Secretary: Nan Shiyan, Factory Director: Lan Jinhua, Deputy Factory Directors: Yang Keqi, Zhang Bichen, Wang Naimo. At that time, the whole factory had 1,564 employees (140 management cadres, 64 technicians, 5 departments, 10 workshops, and an annual output of 54,500 watches, with an output value of 1.57 million yuan.
In 1963, the factory moved from Dingzigu to Fukang Road, Nankai District. New plant No. 11.
In 1965, the watch case workshop of Tianjin Culture and Education Machinery Parts Factory was transferred to Tianjin Watch Factory, and it has become an all-round enterprise. In the same year, the second batch of college students entered the factory: Wang Yazhou, Zhang Zhaoli, Yang Guilan, Diao Liqun, Liu Lijuan, Chen Manlin, Gao Jiexin, Chen Changxiang, etc. To give full play to the talents of technicians. The factory manager Yang May once again proposed the intention to change from imitation to self-made. We want to develop an independently designed movement. First, we set up a trial production team of leading cadres, technicians and old workers. (Organization form during the Cultural Revolution).
In February 1965, Tianjin Watch Factory cooperated with Tianjin University to establish a joint development group for tuning fork electronic watches. The members included Yuan Wenbing, Lu Yangsheng, Ying Jianzhi, Bao Jinsen, etc., referring to my country’s shooting down of U- 2 After the cockpit timer tuning fork electronic watch prototype was discovered on the plane, the ST4 tuning fork electronic watch was successfully developed. Its movement diameter is 30MM, thickness is 6.2MM, 17 drills, tuning fork vibration frequency is 300Hz, travel time accuracy is ≤2S/D, using zinc mercury battery, voltage 1.35V, size 11.6*4.2, counting ratchet diameter 2.4MM, 300 teeth, inclined surface of teeth The length is only 0.025MM, making it difficult to process and adjust. In September 1965, two electronic tuning fork watches were developed and passed the technical appraisal of the Ministry of Light Industry. This is the first trial-produced tuning fork electronic watch in my country.
At the end of the 1960s, while the Tianjin Watch Factory developed its own ST5 movement, the Liaoning Watch Factory developed the SL2 movement. Beijing and Shanghai Watch Factory also proposed improved and innovative designs based on the original imitation movement. The Beijing Watch Factory began to produce five-type watches (SB-5) in 1967. The type 5 meter is improved on the basis of the experience of the type 2 meter, and the swing frequency is increased to 21600Hz after 18000Hz. From 1967 to 1974, a total of 1,617,568 five-type watches were produced. The Shanghai Watch Factory put into production the SS1 calibre in 1966, which was an improved 581-type main bridge design for Shanghai brand 1110, 1010, 1120, 1020, and 1123 watches. Later changed to SS1K fast pendulum (21600 frequency), used in Shanghai brand 1523 and 1524 watches. The SS1 movement is the product of "Catch up with the British and super beautiful" in the 1960s. All parts are carefully polished, and the overall quality reaches the Swiss four-class watch standard. In April 1969, Shanghai Stopwatch Factory produced the SM1A "Diamond" brand mechanical watch with an off-center structure for the first time in China. This movement design makes the watch body thinner and has better transmission performance. This design appears in Europe. Among the famous watch movements such as 1900 and 2300 Swiss watches. The movement is the first in China to use a fast pendulum with a frequency of 21,600 times/hour and a triangular inner pile structure. The watch has won the first place ten times in the 17 national watch quality evaluations for its large barrel wheel, long mainspring, large torque, continuous travel time, large balance wheel, and high timekeeping accuracy. The title of high-quality export products. In addition, the Zhongshan SN2 watch of Nanjing Watch Factory has embarked on an alternative road of 9-diamond "thick machine and fine horse". In 1959, Nanjing Watch Factory developed and produced a cheap "Rough Machine Crude Horse" 6-diamond SN1 "Purple Mountain" brand watch. Around 1968, on the basis of SN1, the 9-diamond SN2 movement was developed and renamed as "Zhongshan". Although the craftsmanship level of the movement is not high, and the thickness is far greater than that of other competitors of the same generation, it has achieved basically equivalent performance at a low price. Therefore, it is deeply loved by the low-income class and contributes to the popularity of watches Made a huge contribution. The structure of the SN2 type "thick machine and fine horse" was later imitated by many watch factories and modified to 11 diamonds (Jieyang sunflower), 15 diamonds (Hengyang Furong), 16 diamonds (Zhengzhou Yellow River), and even 17 diamonds (Jieyang sunflower/ Bao Xuan)'s "fine machine fine horse" table.
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